Oryx And Crake Critical Essay
Oryx and Crake, Margaret Atwood’s second view of dystopia, reveals a bug-ridden creature near a newly formed American seashore after the icecaps have melted. He calls himself Snowman, after the Abominable Snowman, “a white illusion of a man . . . existing and not existing.” His name used to be Jimmy, he used to love words, and he is trying to stay alive. Scraps of sentences, random phrases, surface in his brain. He savors rare old words that are disappearing inside his head. When he forgets them, they will vanish forever from the world.
In his “authentic-replica” Red Sox baseball cap and a filthy sheet that protects him from the ultraviolet rays, Snowman watches the Children of Crake on the beach, naked innocents in a perverse Eden, as they bring him their broken treasures washed in by the waves. They speak simply and cannot read. Snowman is their mythmaker, inventing stories for the adult Children in exchange for their weekly tribute of fish. They remain in awe of him because he alone has seen their creator, Crake, a brilliant scientist and Snowman’s best friend, with whom he still pretends to communicate by means of a broken wristwatch. They are fearless; he is terrified.
These humanoid Children are the product of Crake’s creative gene-splicing at RejoovenEsense, a highly competitive corporate Compound. They possess luminous green eyes (courtesy of a deep-sea jellyfish gene) and citrus-scented skin which discourages the mosquitoes that plague Snowman. Their innocence is ingrained, too; their brains have been altered to exclude thoughts of hierarchy, racism, and religion. They have been programmed to survive.
The novel alternates between present and past action, viewed through the memories of Snowman-Jimmy. His father is a genographer, first at OrganInc Farms and later at the HelthWyzer Compound. These walled, fortresslike Compounds employ scouts to recruit the best scientific minds and security forces to protect their people. Competition between the biotechnological Compounds is fierce and deadly; the truly talented are automatically at risk of kidnapping or worse. Jimmy’s father has been selected as an architect of the Pigoon Project, creating bigger, fatter pig hosts designed to grow multiple human-tissue organs and replace human skin.
Unlike Jimmy’s pragmatic father, Jimmy’s mother is a scientific idealist. As a microbiologist, she has modified living organisms to protect the pigoons against infection, but she is disillusioned by the increasing commercialization of science, “a moral cesspool.” Depressed, she eventually flees the Compound, leaving Jimmy with a farewell note and a few cryptic postcards. She becomes an antitechnology activist, hunted by the relentless Corporation Security Corps (CorpSeCorps); occasionally Jimmy glimpses her on the television news.
The adolescent Jimmy is a confused dreamer. Green-eyed Crake, intelligent and relatively unemotional, is his new high school lab partner. When the teenagers play the Web game Extinctathon (identifying creatures that have become extinct within the past fifty years), he adopts the code name “Crake” (after an Australian marsh bird), which quickly replaces his real one. The boys also enjoy violent computer games like Blood and Roses, in which human atrocities are pitted against human achievements. While Jimmy prefers to focus on achievements, the more detached Crake favors the atrocities. These opposites seem to identify them, yet Jimmy’s mother once told him that Crake is “intellectually honourable” and “doesn’t lie to himself.” Jimmy remains suspicious.
The boys also roam the Internet to view live beheadings (hedsoff.com), assisted suicides (nitee-nite.com), and continuous pornography. For them, the line between simulation and reality blurs; they fail to recognize reality when they see it. Crake, amused, argues that what they are watching is staged, not real. However, they accidentally discover a real little girl, Oryx, on a child pornography Web site (HottTotts), and Jimmy is stunned by her accusing gaze.
Although both of Crake’s parents die mysteriously before his high school...
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Throughout Atwood's text, there is a distinct division between before the release of the virus and after. This dichotomy in the plot is presented through the renaming of various characters in the novel. The renaming is symbolic as it tracks the enormous changes that have happened in the world. The protagonist of the book, Jimmy/Snowman, provides an excellent example of the transformation symbolized by a name change.
In addition, there is a foreshadowing of the events to come in the use of extinct animals as nicknames for two of the three main characters. Oryx and Crake both received their nicknames from a list of extinct creatures. The names of those working inside of the Paradice project were also drawn from the same list. Jimmy also had a similar nickname, Thickney, but it didn't stick. Jimmy is also the only one of the three that survives the fallout of the pandemic.
Oryx's name stands alone. She does not have a "real" name. This ambiguous naming, i.e. the using of only a nickname, reflects her character. She is a wispy, undefined character. She speaks vaguely and reveals little about herself. Most of what is learned by the reader is through Jimmy's speculations.
In Jimmy and Crake's world, little is left to the imagination. Almost everything can be watched, for a price. Jimmy and Crake's friendship is built upon watching hours upon hours of execution, live suicide, animal killing, and pornography. Their world is one of spectacle. The CorpSeCorps don't seem to care about this but instead concentrate their efforts on those who are against such a lifestyle.
In everyday life, appearance drives the economic market for beauty enhancing products. OrganInc, AnooYoo, and RejoovenEsense all make their money on this seemingly global desire. The need to look good is necessary as nearly everything is broadcast and everyone wants to look his or her best.
Even as the virus is destroying the world, the pattern continues. Several individuals broadcast their respective demises on the internet for the surviving few to witness.
The theme of "natural" evolution vs. "synthetic" evolution is presented in Oryx and Crake numerous times. The pharmaceutical companies in the novel have gone beyond creating medicines to battle disease and bodily dysfunction. Their expansion into genetically modified animals raises questions about what exactly comprises nature. Crake describes his modification of human beings as a part of nature as in his view, nothing lies outside of the realm of nature.
The theme of nature is most poignantly explored in the last chapter of the book. Upon seeing three other surviving humans, Snowman has to decide which population, human or Craker, will have the chance to prosper. His decision, which is not revealed in the text, raises questions about human nature and the future evolution of the various surviving species.
The creation of the Crakers was driven by society's (and Crake's) desire to achieve immortality. While most were pursuing the goal through modification of the human through organ transplant and drugs to rejuvenate aging bodies. Crake, on the other hand, approaches the quest differently.
Instead of pursuing immortality by modifying humans that were already in existence, Crake aimed to recreate the human from the inside out. Based on the premise that fear of death is what resulted in mortality, Crake figured that if he could construct a being that had no fear of death that the search for immortality would end.
The Crakers were created to maximize quality of life and minimize impact on the Earth. Among the traits genetically given to them, an inability to read, a lack of interest in art, a lack of desire to worship a higher being, and an ignorance of death were the most pertinent to achieving Crake's desired immortality.
In Oryx and Crake, disease plays a multitude of roles. Its overarching presence makes it one of the most important themes of the novel. For example, disease is a marker of class through the segregation of urban areas. Those who have comfortable jobs with the major pharmaceutical companies live in disease-free, highly guarded compounds. Those who are not affiliated with such companies live in the disease-infested pleeblands. Disease is so ubiquitous in the latter that residents who do not normally reside in the pleeblands either avoid entering them or take special medicines to enter them safely.
Disease is also presented in Oryx and Crake as a weapon of mass destruction. Crake's widespread distribution of his masked virus results in the death of almost the entire human population. Crake is not the only one to use disease as a weapon. Crake himself accuses pharmaceutical companies of inventing diseases and cures simultaneously in order to maintain a high demand for their services. Although one could consider this use of disease a swindle, it is also a powerful capitalistic weapon.
Finally, disease is subversively used as a cure to the problems of humanity. By inflicting a lethal disease on the world's population, Crake hoped to remove hunger, war, jealousy, crime, rape, and a host of other undesirable conditions of the human experience.
In Oryx and Crake, there is a strong preference for those who are scientifically or mathematically capable. The world has little use for those who are verbally inclined. Unfortunately for Jimmy, he is skilled with words, not numbers. This fact comprises one of the main tensions in the novel.
From the very beginning of their friendship, Jimmy and Crake noted their academic differences. Crake would often tutor Jimmy to help him pass his math and science classes. Crake was unable to understand why Jimmy struggled with subjects that he found easy and essential.
The death of artistic use of language is seen in the various points of the book. For example, Jimmy's college asked him to throw old, useless library books away. Jimmy couldn't do it, however, because he was unable to choose which books to keep versus which ones to dispose of. Another example can be seen in the rank and salary given to an individual in Jimmy's vocational grouping. Those working in advertising, i.e. a purely word-driven field, were paid little. Jobs in this market were extremely hard to come by as well.
In Jimmy's present, i.e. as Snowman, there is a slow slipping away of words. Unable to remember the definitions or importance of words, Snowman recognizes that not only is he slipping away, so is the last bits of humanity. For much of the novel, Snowman believes that he is the only surviving human. If this is true, it means that once he forgets a word, it's gone forever. The thought panics Snowman as he tries to hold on to every bit of his verbal memory.
Jimmy and Crake's parental relationships are reflected in their later lives through their romantic and platonic interactions. As both Jimmy and Crake had absent or dead parents, their understanding of nurturing relationships is maimed. Oryx, on the other hand, despite having been treated badly by all of her parental figures, retains a respect and hope that Jimmy and Crake lack. It is probable this facet of Oryx's personality is part of what attracts both Jimmy and Crake to her.
Jimmy's romantic relationships are short and largely meaningless, a way for him to dull a festering emotional pain. Crake is seemingly unable to form connections with individuals apart from Jimmy. Once they both meet Oryx, they both appear to experience love for the first time.
Oryx's nurturing nature is also featured prominently in her interactions with the Crakers. She is the Craker's symbol of love. Jimmy, on the other hand, struggles with his position as the Craker caretaker.