1 Jukree

Essay Of 500 Words On Waste Management

Waste Management Essay

2.0 Literature Review

People are consume a lot of product and generate waste product much faster than the natural degradation process and replecement of this materials. So far, Malaysians spend much more money on waste management. Local authorities spend up to 60 per cent of their annual budget to manage solid waste generated in the country, which costs Malaysia between RM110 and RM130 to collect and dispose one tonne of garbage. That sums up to RM1.98 million to RM2.34 million per day or RM854 million per year at the current generation of 18,000 tonnes of solid wastes per day (Ali, Eeda et al., 2012).
2.1 What is waste and domestic waste
Waste is unwanted material left over from a production process, or output which has no marketable value. For the domestic waste, solid waste that comprising of garbage and rubbish like bottles, cans, clothes, shoes,disposables, compost, papers, diposables and food scraps that comes from private homes or apartments. Domestic waste also may contain hazardous waste. Domestc waste is also called household waste and residential waste.

2.2 Characteristic of wastes
Solid waste has been categorized into several types according to the classification which has been used by almost all countries in the world. The main division is into organic, inorganic and hazardous waste.

Table 1 : Characteristics of domestic wastes ( source: Ali, Eeda et al., 2012 )
Types of Waste Waste Components
a) Organic wastes
Composting/Biodegradable waste
Recyclable/non-biodegradable waste


Rubber and leather

Yard wastes

Non-Recyclable/residual waste
b) Inorganic wastes
Recyclable/non-biodegradable waste
products etc.
Aluminium cans

Bulky wastes

c) Special wastes
Petroleum products
Inert material

d) Hazardous wastes
Hazardous wastes
Vegetables and fruit discards and peeling, egg shells,
spoiled food and bread, meat and fish bones

Newspapers, books, comics, magazines, office papers, wrapping paper, paper bags, paper towels, writing paper, cigarette packages, paper plates and cups
Trash bags, plastic plates and cups, toys, wraps, sacks,
other plastic packaging, bottle etc.
Rubber tyres, leather shoes, handbags, carpets
Clothes, rags, carpets, hats, other fabrics
Lumber, plywood boxes, furniture and cabinets, toys
Grass clippings, flowers, plants, leaves, tree and brush trimmings

Sanitary napkins, disposable diapers

Bottles, jars, broken glass, beer and soft drinks, food
Soft drink cans, food and other aluminium cans.
Furniture, refrigerators, stoves (can use any part of it)

Oil, grease, etc.
Wire, auto parts, iron, steel, etc
Rocks, stones, ceramics, bricks, sand, dirt, ashes, cinder.

Batteries, chemicals, pesticides, paints, thinners, spray canisters, tires, Worn-out/broken radios, stereos, and TV

2.3 Methods of Waste Management

1. Disposal Method

Historically most household waste has been dumped, buried or burned....

Loading: Checking Spelling


Read more

Oak Flats Waste Management Essay

1861 words - 7 pages Introduction Oak Flats is a community in Australia that has a growing population in 2529. Due to an increasing population I started to wonder whether the waste in Oak Flats was in control and how much of this waste is recycled. My aim is to find out how much waste is produced form each household and how much is recycled in each household and depending on my results ways to reduce the amount of waste produced from each household. My...

Nuclear Waste Management Essay

1216 words - 5 pages good goodNuclear Waste managementNuclear energy harnesses the energy released during the splitting or fusing of atomic nuclei. This heat energy is most often used to convert water to...

Nuclear Waste Management

1102 words - 4 pages Nuclear Waste Management      Nuclear energy harnesses the energy released during the splitting or fusing of atomic nuclei. This heat energy is most often used to convert water to steam, turning turbines, and generating electricity.      However, nuclear energy also has many disadvantages. An event that demonstrated this was the terrible incident at Chernobyl'. Here on April 26, 1986, one of...

Australia NSW - Household Waste Management

1168 words - 5 pages INTRODUCTIONThe issue of Waste Management is relevant to everyone. Wastes are substances that have no further economic use, and if disposed of in land, water, or air are potentially harmful to humans and/or the environment. Wastes include solid waste (litter, household garbage, industrial & commercial wastes), liquid wastes (sewage, stormwater), and...

Solid Waste Management In Turkey

967 words - 4 pages SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN TURKEY IN TERMS OF GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS As is seen in every country, economical factors form the basis of the relationship between the population and environment in Turkey. The conditions obliged by the economical development give rise to the demographical activities such as rapid population growth, high fertility, high dependence rates, and migration from villages to the cities. The relationship between the population...

Privatization of Solid Waste Management

1145 words - 5 pages Privatization of Solid Waste Management Among the major environmental policies that have triggered hot debates among stakeholders and the public in general is that of privatizing solid waste management in various cities in the United States. Private companies have been operating the business of waste collection and management for many years not only in the U.S but also in the U.K and other countries. The debate has been whether by privatizing...


724 words - 3 pages The island of La Palma is in a privileged situation if we consider it as a whole. It has a series of aspects, values and natural, economic and social resources, such as its extraordinary natural landscape of great beauty and with a wealth of bio-diversity that underpin its privileged position. It also has a pleasant climate that supports a highly productive agricultural...

Urban Pollution and Waste Management

1856 words - 7 pages Urban Pollution and Waste Management Urban pollution and waste management is a major problem in both the first and third worlds. The increases of major air pollutants in the atmosphere are causing damage to our waters and land. The increase of garbage and waste in urban areas, such as cities, are beginning to look like huge landfills, acid rain is causing forests and buildings to deteriorate, and finally ozone, which is caused from...

How Is Waste Management Affected By Socioeconomic Factors?

3738 words - 15 pages How Is Waste Management Affected By Socioeconomic Factors? Summary. One of the most pressing environmental issues facing the world today is the issue of waste management and disposal. This problem crosses all international borders and touches the lives of all of the world’s peoples. Waste management encompasses everything from collection and handling to disposal by incineration, landfill and other methods, and recycling. Also included...

Organizational Culture at The Monterey Regional Waste Management District (MRWMD)

6720 words - 27 pages Organizational Culture at The Monterey Regional Waste Management District (MRWMD) Introduction 1.     The Monterey Regional Waste Management District (MRWMD) had humble beginnings in 1951 when forward thinking county officials had a vision of a better waste management system for the Monterey Peninsula, ending the era of unconditional garbage dumping that had prevailed. From this time on, a Board of Directors has...

Understanding the Elements of Eco-Sanitation Toilets as One Contribution to Productive Waste Management

1734 words - 7 pages Although the forerunning company of the Eco-San Toilet System was established in the year 1987, the idea of an Eco-San Toilet System in the Philippines traced back to the year 2001 when the Center for Advanced Philippines Studies (CAPS) sealed a partnership with WASTE, a Dutch non-government organization, in order to conduct solid waste management studies, particularly on recycling, composting, hospital wastes and institutional aspects of Solid...

For the company, see Waste Management (corporation). For other uses, see Waste management (disambiguation).

Not to be confused with Sanitary engineering.

Waste management or waste disposal are all the activities and actions required to manage waste from its inception to its final disposal.[1] This includes amongst other things collection, transport, treatment and disposal of waste together with monitoring and regulation. It also encompasses the legal and regulatory framework that relates to waste management encompassing guidance on recycling.

Waste can take any form that is either solid, liquid, or gas and each have different methods of disposal and management. Waste management normally deals with all types of waste whether it was created in forms that are industrial, biological, household, and special cases where it may pose a threat to human health.[2] It is produced due to human activity such as when factories extract and process raw materials.[3] Waste management is intended to reduce adverse effects of waste on health, the environment or aesthetics.

Waste management practices are not uniform among countries (developed and developing nations); regions (urban and rural areas), and sectors (residential and industrial).[4]

A large portion of waste management practices deal with municipal solid waste (MSW) which is waste that is created by household, industrial, and commercial activity.[5]

Central principles of waste management[edit]

There are a number of concepts about waste management which vary in their usage between countries or regions. Some of the most general, widely used concepts include:

Waste hierarchy[edit]

The waste hierarchy refers to the "3 Rs" reduce, reuse and recycle, which classify waste management strategies according to their desirability in terms of waste minimisation. The waste hierarchy remains the cornerstone of most waste minimisation strategies. The aim of the waste hierarchy is to extract the maximum practical benefits from products and to generate the minimum amount of waste; see: resource recovery.[6] The waste hierarchy is represented as a pyramid because the basic premise is for policy to take action first and prevent the generation of waste. The next step or preferred action is to reduce the generation of waste i.e. by re-use. The next is recycling which would include composting. Following this step is material recovery and waste-to-energy. Energy can be recovered from processes i.e. landfill and combustion, at this level of the hierarchy. The final action is disposal, in landfills or through incineration without energy recovery. This last step is the final resort for waste which has not been prevented, diverted or recovered.[7][page needed] The waste hierarchy represents the progression of a product or material through the sequential stages of the pyramid of waste management. The hierarchy represents the latter parts of the life-cycle for each product.[7][page needed]

Life-cycle of a product[edit]

The life-cycle begins with design, then proceeds through manufacture, distribution, use and then follows through the waste hierarchy's stages of reduce, reuse and recycle. Each of the above stages of the life-cycle offers opportunities for policy intervention, to rethink the need for the product, to redesign to minimize waste potential, to extend its use.[7][page needed] The key behind the life-cycle of a product is to optimize the use of the world's limited resources by avoiding the unnecessary generation of waste.

Resource efficiency[edit]

Resource efficiency reflects the understanding that current, global, economic growth and development can not be sustained with the current production and consumption patterns. Globally, we are extracting more resources to produce goods than the planet can replenish.[7][page needed] Resource efficiency is the reduction of the environmental impact from the production and consumption of these goods, from final raw material extraction to last use and disposal. This process of resource efficiency can address sustainability.

An example of such a source in which we are extracting to produce more goods and causes damage to the environment is the waste of fossil fuels. An example of such a fossil fuel is the waste of energy. 32% of energy wasted for grains, 25.3% energy wasted in vegetables, 23.4% wasted in fruit, 32% wasted in dairy, 16% wasted in meat, poultry, and fish, 31.4% wasted in eggs. This shows how much energy we are wasting by wasting grains, vegetables, fruit, dairy, meat, poultry, fish and eggs[8]. Additionally, that is just the energy associated with growing those food commodities. There is also more energy associated in packaging and transporting those goods. At the end of the day, we are not using our resources efficiently by wasting food. The amount of energy that is wasted in food loss is also the amount of energy taken from other sources that perhaps need it and can make a better use from it.

Polluter-pays principle[edit]

The polluter-pays principle is a principle where the polluting party pays for the impact caused to the environment. With respect to waste management, this generally refers to the requirement for a waste generator to pay for appropriate disposal of the unrecoverable material.


Main article: History of waste management

Throughout most of history, the amount of waste generated by humans was insignificant due to low population density and low societal levels of the exploitation of natural resources. Common waste produced during pre-modern times was mainly ashes and human biodegradable waste, and these were released back into the ground locally, with minimum environmental impact. Tools made out of wood or metal were generally reused or passed down through the generations.

However, some civilizations do seem to have been more profligate in their waste output than others. In particular, the Maya of Central America had a fixed monthly ritual, in which the people of the village would gather together and burn their rubbish in large dumps.[9]

Modern era[edit]

Following the onset of industrialisation and the sustained urban growth of large population centres in England, the buildup of waste in the cities caused a rapid deterioration in levels of sanitation and the general quality of urban life. The streets became choked with filth due to the lack of waste clearance regulations.[10] Calls for the establishment of a municipal authority with waste removal powers occurred as early as 1751, when Corbyn Morris in London proposed that "... as the preservation of the health of the people is of great importance, it is proposed that the cleaning of this city, should be put under one uniform public management, and all the filth be...conveyed by the Thames to proper distance in the country".[11]

However, it was not until the mid-19th century, spurred by increasingly devastating cholera outbreaks and the emergence of a public health debate that the first legislation on the issue emerged. Highly influential in this new focus was the report The Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population in 1842[12] of the social reformer, Edwin Chadwick, in which he argued for the importance of adequate waste removal and management facilities to improve the health and wellbeing of the city's population.

In the UK, the Nuisance Removal and Disease Prevention Act of 1846 began what was to be a steadily evolving process of the provision of regulated waste management in London. The Metropolitan Board of Works was the first citywide authority that centralized sanitation regulation for the rapidly expanding city and the Public Health Act 1875 made it compulsory for every household to deposit their weekly waste in "moveable receptacles: for disposal—the first concept for a dust-bin.[13]

The dramatic increase in waste for disposal led to the creation of the first incineration plants, or, as they were then called, "destructors". In 1874, the first incinerator was built in Nottingham by Manlove, Alliott & Co. Ltd. to the design of Albert Fryer.[11] However, these were met with opposition on account of the large amounts of ash they produced and which wafted over the neighbouring areas.[14]

Similar municipal systems of waste disposal sprung up at the turn of the 20th century in other large cities of Europe and North America. In 1895, New York City became the first U.S. city with public-sector garbage management.[13]

Early garbage removal trucks were simply open bodied dump trucks pulled by a team of horses. They became motorized in the early part of the 20th century and the first close body trucks to eliminate odours with a dumping lever mechanism were introduced in the 1920s in Britain.[15] These were soon equipped with 'hopper mechanisms' where the scooper was loaded at floor level and then hoisted mechanically to deposit the waste in the truck. The Garwood Load Packer was the first truck in 1938, to incorporate a hydraulic compactor.

Waste handling and transport[edit]

Main articles: Waste collection vehicle, Dustbin, and Waste sorting

Waste collection methods vary widely among different countries and regions. Domestic waste collection services are often provided by local government authorities, or by private companies for industrial and commercial waste. Some areas, especially those in less developed countries, do not have formal waste-collection systems.

Waste handling practices[edit]

Curbside collection is the most common method of disposal in most European countries, Canada, New Zealand and many other parts of the developed world in which waste is collected at regular intervals by specialised trucks. This is often associated with curb-side waste segregation. In rural areas waste may need to be taken to a transfer station. Waste collected is then transported to an appropriate disposal facility. In some areas, vacuum collection is used in which waste is transported from the home or commercial premises by vacuum along small bore tubes. Systems are in use in Europe and North America.

Main article: Automated vacuum collection

In some jurisdictions unsegregated waste is collected at the curb-side or from waste transfer stations and then sorted into recyclables and unusable waste. Such systems are capable of sorting large volumes of solid waste, salvaging recyclables, and turning the rest into bio-gas and soil conditioner. In San Francisco, the local government established its Mandatory Recycling and Composting Ordinance in support of its goal of "Zero waste by 2020", requiring everyone in the city to keep recyclables and compostables out of the landfill. The three streams are collected with the curbside "Fantastic 3" bin system – blue for recyclables, green for compostables, and black for landfill-bound materials – provided to residents and businesses and serviced by San Francisco's sole refuse hauler, Recology. The City's "Pay-As-You-Throw" system charges customers by the volume of landfill-bound materials, which provides a financial incentive to separate recyclables and compostables from other discards. The City's Department of the Environment's Zero Waste Program has led the City to achieve 80% diversion, the highest diversion rate in North America.[16] Other businesses such as Waste Industries use a variety of colors to distinguish between trash and recycling cans.

Financial models[edit]

In most developed countries, domestic waste disposal is funded from a national or local tax which may be related to income, or national house value. Commercial and industrial waste disposal is typically charged for as a commercial service, often as an integrated charge which includes disposal costs. This practice may encourage disposal contractors to opt for the cheapest disposal option such as landfill rather than the environmentally best solution such as re-use and recycling. In some areas such as Taipei, the city government charges its households and industries for the volume of rubbish they produce. Waste will only be collected by the city council if waste is disposed in government issued rubbish bags. This policy has successfully reduced the amount of waste the city produces and increased the recycling rate.[citation needed]

Disposal methods[edit]


Main article: Landfill


Main article: Incineration

Incineration is a disposal method in which solid organic wastes are subjected to combustion so as to convert them into residue and gaseous products. This method is useful for disposal of residue of both solid waste management and solid residue from waste water management. This process reduces the volumes of solid waste to 20 to 30 percent of the original volume. Incineration and other high temperature waste treatment systems are sometimes described as "thermal treatment". Incinerators convert waste materials into heat, gas, steam, and ash.

Incineration is carried out both on a small scale by individuals and on a large scale by industry. It is used to dispose of solid, liquid and gaseous waste. It is recognized as a practical method of disposing of certain hazardous waste materials (such as biological medical waste). Incineration is a controversial method of waste disposal, due to issues such as emission of gaseous pollutants.

Incineration is common in countries such as Japan where land is more scarce, as these facilities generally do not require as much area as landfills. Waste-to-energy (WtE) or energy-from-waste (EfW) are broad terms for facilities that burn waste in a furnace or boiler to generate heat, steam or electricity. Combustion in an incinerator is not always perfect and there have been concerns about pollutants in gaseous emissions from incinerator stacks. Particular concern has focused on some very persistent organic compounds such as dioxins, furans, and PAHs, which may be created and which may have serious environmental consequences.


Main article: Recycling

Recycling is a resource recovery practice that refers to the collection and reuse of waste materials such as empty beverage containers. The materials from which the items are made can be reprocessed into new products. Material for recycling may be collected separately from general waste using dedicated bins and collection vehicles, a procedure called kerbside collection. In some communities, the owner of the waste is required to separate the materials into different bins (e.g. for paper, plastics, metals) prior to its collection. In other communities, all recyclable materials are placed in a single bin for collection, and the sorting is handled later at a central facility. The latter method is known as "single-stream recycling."[17][18]

The most common consumer products recycled include aluminium such as beverages cans, copper such as wire, steel from food and aerosol cans, old steel furnishings or equipment, rubber tyres, polyethylene and PET bottles, glass bottles and jars, paperboardcartons, newspapers, magazines and light paper, and corrugated fiberboard boxes.

PVC, LDPE, PP, and PS (see resin identification code) are also recyclable. These items are usually composed of a single type of material, making them relatively easy to recycle into new products. The recycling of complex products (such as computers and electronic equipment) is more difficult, due to the additional dismantling and separation required.

The type of material accepted for recycling varies by city and country. Each city and country has different recycling programs in place that can handle the various types of recyclable materials. However, certain variation in acceptance is reflected in the resale value of the material once it is reprocessed. In July 2017, the Chinese government announced an import ban of 24 categories of recyclables and solid waste, including plastic, textiles and mixed paper, placing tremendous impact on developed countries globally, which exported directly or indirectly to China.[19]


Biological reprocessing[edit]

Main articles: Composting, Home composting, Anaerobic digestion, and Microbial fuel cell

Recoverable materials that are organic in nature, such as plant material, food scraps, and paper products, can be recovered through composting and digestion processes to decompose the organic matter. The resulting organic material is then recycled as mulch or compost for agricultural or landscaping purposes. In addition, waste gas from the process (such as methane) can be captured and used for generating electricity and heat (CHP/cogeneration) maximising efficiencies. The intention of biological processing in waste management is to control and accelerate the natural process of decomposition of organic matter. (See resource recovery).

Energy recovery[edit]

Main article: Waste-to-energy

Energy recovery from waste is the conversion of non-recyclable waste materials into usable heat, electricity, or fuel through a variety of processes, including combustion, gasification, pyrolyzation, anaerobic digestion, and landfill gas recovery.[20] This process is often called waste-to-energy. Energy recovery from waste is part of the non-hazardous waste management hierarchy. Using energy recovery to convert non-recyclable waste materials into electricity and heat, generates a renewable energy source and can reduce carbon emissions by offsetting the need for energy from fossil sources as well as reduce methane generation from landfills.[20] Globally, waste-to-energy accounts for 16% of waste management.[21]

The energy content of waste products can be harnessed directly by using them as a direct combustion fuel, or indirectly by processing them into another type of fuel. Thermal treatment ranges from using waste as a fuel source for cooking or heating and the use of the gas fuel (see above), to fuel for boilers to generate steam and electricity in a turbine. Pyrolysis and gasification are two related forms of thermal treatment where waste materials are heated to high temperatures with limited oxygen availability. The process usually occurs in a sealed vessel under high pressure. Pyrolysis of solid waste converts the material into solid, liquid and gas products. The liquid and gas can be burnt to produce energy or refined into other chemical products (chemical refinery). The solid residue (char) can be further refined into products such as activated carbon. Gasification and advanced Plasma arc gasification are used to convert organic materials directly into a synthetic gas (syngas) composed of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The gas is then burnt to produce electricity and steam. An alternative to pyrolysis is high temperature and pressure supercritical water decomposition (hydrothermal monophasic oxidation).


Main article: Pyrolysis

Pyrolysis is often used to convert many types of domestic and industrial residues into a recovered fuel. Different types of waste input (such as plant waste, food waste, tyres) placed in the pyrolysis process potentially yield a recovered energy source that can be an alternative to fossil fuels.[22] Pyrolysis is a process of thermo-chemical decomposition of organic materials by heat in the absence of oxygen which produces various hydrocarbon gases.[23] During pyrolysis, the molecules of object are subjected to very high temperatures leading to very high vibrations. Therefore, every molecule in the object is stretched and shaken to an extent that molecules starts breaking down. The rate of pyrolysis increases with temperature. In industrial applications, temperatures are above 430 °C (800 °F).[24] Fast pyrolysis produces liquid fuel for feedstocks like wood. Slow pyrolysis produces gases and solid charcoal.[25] Pyrolysis hold promise for conversion of waste biomass into useful liquid fuel. Pyrolysis of waste plastics can produce millions of litres of fuel. Solid products of this process contain metals, glass, sand and pyrolysis coke which cannot be converted to gas in the process.Compared to the process of incineration, certain types of pyrolysis processes prevent the release of harmful product residues that contain some alkali metals, sulphur, and chlorine. Pyrolysis results in smaller contaminant gas emissions which makes for smaller clean-up methods that would reduce cost. Some concerns to point out is that pyrolysis yields gasses which impact the environment such as HCl and SO2.[26]

Resource recovery[edit]

Main article: Resource recovery

Resource recovery is the systematic diversion of waste, which was intended for disposal, for a specific next use.[27] It is the processing of recyclables to extract or recover materials and resources, or convert to energy.[28] These activities are performed at a resource recovery facility.[28] Resource recovery is not only environmentally important, but it is also cost-effective.[29] It decreases the amount of waste for disposal, saves space in landfills, and conserves natural resources.[29]

Resource recovery (as opposed to waste management) uses LCA (life cycle analysis) attempts to offer alternatives to waste management. For mixed MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) a number of broad studies have indicated that administration, source separation and collection followed by reuse and recycling of the non-organic fraction and energy and compost/fertilizer production of the organic material via anaerobic digestion to be the favoured path.

As an example of how resource recycling can be beneficial, many of the items thrown away contain precious metals which can be recycled to create a profit, such as the components in circuit boards. Other industries can also benefit from resource recycling with the wood chippings in pallets and other packaging materials being passed onto sectors such as the horticultural profession. In this instance, workers can use the recycled chips to create paths, walkways, or arena surfaces.


The management of waste is a key component in a business' ability of maintaining ISO14001 accreditation. Companies are encouraged to improve their environmental efficiencies each year by eliminating waste through resource recovery practices, which are sustainability-related activities. One way to do this is by shifting away from waste management to resource recovery practices like recycling materials such as glass, food scraps, paper and cardboard, plastic bottles and metal. An important market for recycled materials is the construction sector. Many inorganic waste streams can be used for the production of materials for construction. This includes the recycling of concrete and bricks, mostly used as artificial gravel. This topic was on the agenda of the International WASCON conference in Spain in June 2015 and on the international Conference on Green Urbanism, held in Italy 12–14 October 2016.[citation needed]

Liquid waste-management[edit]

Sewage sludge[edit]

Main article: Sewage sludge treatment

Sewage sludge is the resulting product of waste water treatment processes. Due to rapid urbanization, there has been an increase in municipal waste water that results 0.1–30.8 kg of sewage per population equivalent per year (kg/p.e/year).[30] Common disposal practices of sewage sludge are incineration, composting, and landfill.

Avoidance and reduction methods[edit]

Main article: Waste minimization

An important method of waste management is the prevention of waste material being created, also known as waste reduction. Methods of avoidance include reuse of second-hand products, repairing broken items instead of buying new, designing products to be refillable or reusable (such as cotton instead of plastic shopping bags), encouraging consumers to avoid using disposable products (such as disposable cutlery), removing any food/liquid remains from cans and packaging,[31] and designing products that use less material to achieve the same purpose (for example, lightweighting of beverage cans).[32]

International waste movement[edit]

While waste transport within a given country falls under national regulations, trans-boundary movement of waste is often subject to international treaties. A major concern to many countries in the world has been hazardous waste. The Basel Convention, ratified by 172 countries, deprecates movement of hazardous waste from developed to less developed countries. The provisions of the Basel convention have been integrated into the EU waste shipment regulation. Nuclear waste, although considered hazardous, does not fall under the jurisdiction of the Basel Convention.


Waste is not something that should be discarded or disposed of with no regard for future use. It can be a valuable resource if addressed correctly, through policy and practice. With rational and consistent waste management practices there is an opportunity to reap a range of benefits. Those benefits include:

  1. Economic – Improving economic efficiency through the means of resource use, treatment and disposal and creating markets for recycles can lead to efficient practices in the production and consumption of products and materials resulting in valuable materials being recovered for reuse and the potential for new jobs and new business opportunities.
  2. Social – By reducing adverse impacts on health by proper waste management practices, the resulting consequences are more appealing settlements. Better social advantages can lead to new sources of employment and potentially lifting communities out of poverty especially in some of the developing poorer countries and cities.
  3. Environmental – Reducing or eliminating adverse impacts on the environment through reducing, reusing and recycling, and minimizing resource extraction can provide improved air and water quality and help in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.
  4. Inter-generational Equity – Following effective waste management practices can provide subsequent generations a more robust economy, a fairer and more inclusive society and a cleaner environment.[7][page needed]

Challenges in developing countries[edit]

Waste management in cities with developing economies and economies in transition experience exhausted waste collection services and inadequately managed and uncontrolled dumpsites. The problems are worsening.[7][page needed] Problems with governance complicate the situation. Waste management, in these countries and cities, is an ongoing challenge and many struggle due to weak institutions, chronic under-resourcing and rapid urbanization.[7][page needed] All of these challenges, along with the lack of understanding of different factors that contribute to the hierarchy of waste management, affect the treatment of waste.[33][full citation needed]


Traditionally, the waste management industry has been a late adopter of new technologies such as RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tags, GPS and integrated software packages which enable better quality data to be collected without the use of estimation or manual data entry.[34]

Scientific journals[edit]

See also: Category:Waste management journals

Related scientific journals in this area include:

See also[edit]


  1. ^"United Nations Statistics Division - Environment Statistics". unstats.un.org. Retrieved 3 March 2017. 
  2. ^"Editorial Board/Aims & Scope". Waste Management. 34 (3): IFC. March 2014. doi:10.1016/S0956-053X(14)00026-9. 
  3. ^"United Nations Statistics Division - Environment Statistics". unstats.un.org. Retrieved 3 March 2017. 
  4. ^Davidson, Gary (June 2011). "Waste Management Practices: Literature Review"(PDF). Dalhousie University - Office of Sustainability. Retrieved 3 March 2017. 
  5. ^Handbook of Solid Waste Management and Waste Minimization Technologies. 2003. pp. 337–465. 
  6. ^Albert, Raleigh (4 August 2011). "The Proper Care and Use of a Garbage Disposal". Disposal Mag. Retrieved 2017-03-03. 
  7. ^ abcdefgGuidelines for National Waste Management Strategies Moving from Challenges to Opportunities(PDF). United Nations Environmental Programme. 2013. ISBN 978-92-807-3333-4. .
  8. ^https://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/es100310d
  9. ^Barbalace, Roberta Crowell (2003-08-01). "The History of Waste". EnvironmentalChemistry.com. Retrieved 2013-12-09. 
  10. ^Florence Nightingale, Selected Writings of Florence Nightingale, ed. Lucy Ridgely Seymer (New York: The Macmillan Co., 1954), pp. 38287
  11. ^ abHerbert, Lewis (2007). "Centenary History of Waste and Waste Managers in London and South East England". Chartered Institution of Wastes Management. 
  12. ^Chadwick, Edwin (1842). Report...from the Poor Law Commissioners on an Inquiry into the Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring Population of Great Britain. London. pp. 369–372.  via Laura Del Col (11 October 2002). "Chadwick's Report on Sanitary Conditions". The Victorian Web. 
  13. ^ abNational Waste & Recycling Association. "History of Solid Waste Management". Washington, D.C. Retrieved 2013-12-09. 
  14. ^Gandy, Matthew (1994). Recycling and the Politics of Urban Waste. Earthscan. ISBN 9781853831683. 
  15. ^"Covered Bodies". Archived from the original on 2015-01-06. 
  16. ^http://www.siemens.com/entry/cc/features/greencityindex_international/all/en/pdf/report_northamerica_en.pdf
  17. ^City of Chicago, Illinois. Department of Streets and Sanitation. "What is Single Stream Recycling." Accessed 2013-12-09.
  18. ^Montgomery County, Maryland. Division of Solid Waste Services. "Curbside Collection." Accessed 2013-12-09.
  19. ^Walker, T. R. (2018). China's ban on imported plastic waste could be a game changer. Nature, 553(7689), 405-405.
  20. ^ ab"Energy Recovery from Waste". USEPA. 2014. 
  21. ^"Waste Hierarchy". New Energy Corporation. 2014. 
  22. ^Czajczyńska, D.; Anguilano, L.; Ghazal, H.; Krzyżyńska, R.; Reynolds, A.J.; Spencer, N.; Jouhara, H. (September 2017). "Potential of pyrolysis processes in the waste management sector". Thermal Science and Engineering Progress. 3: 171–197. doi:10.1016/j.tsep.2017.06.003. 
  23. ^Oxford Reference – Pyrolysis
  24. ^Encyclopedia Britannica
  25. ^By Prabir Basu: Biomass Gasification, Pyrolysis and Torrefaction: Practical Design and Theory
  26. ^Chen, Dezhen; Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan; He, Pinjing (December 2014). "Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: A review". Waste Mananagement. 34 (12): 2466–2486. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2014.08.004. 
  27. ^"Frequent Questions". USEPA. 2012. 
  28. ^ ab"Resource Recovery". Government of Montana. 2012. 
  29. ^ ab"What is Resource Recovery?". Grand Traverse County. 2006. 
  30. ^Syed Shatir, A. Syed-Hassan; Wang, Yi; Hu, Song; Su, Sheng; Xiang, Jun (December 2017). "Thermochemical processing of sewage sludge to energy and fuel: Fundamentals, challenges and considerations". Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 80: 888–913. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2017.05.262. 
  31. ^"Removing food remains to reduce waste". Recycling Guide. Retrieved 2012-09-25. 
  32. ^Schneider, Michael; Johnson, Liz. "Lightweighting". Projects in Scientific Computing. Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center, Carnegie Mellon University, University of Pittsburgh. Retrieved 2012-09-25. 
  33. ^Abarca Guerrero, Lilliana; Maas, Ger; Hogland, William (2013). "Solid waste management challenges for cities in developing countries". Waste Management. Science Direct. 33 (1): 220–232. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2012.09.008.
Waste management in Paris
Diagram of the waste hierarchy
Sir Edwin Chadwick's 1842 report The Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population was influential in securing the passage of the first legislation aimed at waste clearance and disposal.
Molded plastic, wheeled waste bin in Berkshire, England
Spittelau incineration plant in Vienna

Leave a Comment


Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *