Islamophobia Argumentative Essay Format
Hostility towards strangers within European right-wing populist parties has been apparent in its commonness, its virulence, as well as its danger. Xenophobia can be defined as the fear of the unknown, particularly of strangers or foreigners. Islamophobia is one type of xenophobia which relates to the fear of Muslims, as well as their acts. This fear of another nation or minority that is in some way different often develops into hatred and the feeling of one’s own superiority above another person’s background and heritage. Xenophobia and Islamophobia incorporates the hatred of people that belong to a different race, ethnic group, or national origin. Needless to say, such negative attitudes are particularly dangerous within a multinational entity such as the European Union. As reports demonstrate, xenophobia and/or Islamophobia are present in the majority of the western European right-wing populist parties (Schori Liang, 49). This coursework attempts to analyze the differences and similarities in the occurrence of xenophobic behavior within right wing parties in a number of European Union countries, particularly Norway, France, the Netherlands, Finland, Italy, Switzerland, Denmark, Sweden, and Austria.
In Norway, the Progress Party (Framstegspartiet, FrP) was originally formed as an anti-tax libertarian party, but at the present time, it is a typical anti-migration party. The Progress Party argues that immigration is the main cause of crime and social tensions that directly influence the welfare state, which the party wants to reduce. The Progress Party intends to tighten Norwegian immigration policy, allowing only a limited number of immigrants into the country’s labor market (Schori Liang, 50). While the Party’s intentions seem to have fair grounds, the slogans and atmosphere that it aims to set among the Norwegian population are at times particularly xenophobic.
In France, the situation is similar. However, the French Front National (FN) party opposes immigration both into the country and into the European Union in general. Furthermore, the FN Party has actively advocated in favor of the law that would make it compulsory for immigrants to leave the country, and the EU, and return to their country of origin. However, in light of the recent accusations of being too rigid and promoting xenophobic tendencies, the Front National has for now focused on preserving such actions for foreign-born criminals only.
The situation with xenophobia in the Netherlands has a particular Islamophobic peculiarity to it. It has been historically a country with a high rate of Muslim immigration, and apparently, some are quite frustrated with the fact that the immigrants from Muslim countries take away their welfare benefits and their jobs. With the economic crisis and increase in the unemployment rates, the Party of Freedom of Netherlands has strongly supported the idea of closing the borders to all Muslim immigrants, as well as such radical measures as banning the Koran, putting in “head rag tax” posters, and even arguing that Dutch Muslims should lose their citizenship. Moreover, the Party of Freedom stands firmly in favor of placing severe limits on any internal immigration from within the European Union (Kicker, 84).
The True Finns right-wing party of Finland refers to Brussels as “the heart of darkness.” The party runs on highly xenophobic grounds and enforces hostility to any foreign representatives. For instance, the party intends to restrict foreigners from acquiring Finnish nationality or take refuge in Finland (Cesari, 203). Similarly, the Northern League (Lega Nord) of Italy seeks “Padania”—the term that means greater autonomy for Northern parts of the country. The Northern League is against immigration from Romany and from outside the European Union. The party overtly antagonizes Muslims as well. On one occasion, a member of the Northern League party lobbed a pig’s head onto the prospective site of a mosque, a highly disrespectful and insulting act for Muslims.
In Switzerland, the Swiss People’s Party is highly opposed to Switzerland’s admission to the European Union. One of the main arguments against it is that joining the EU will cause a boost in immigration of foreigners, both legal and illegal, which is seen as a serious threat to the economic prosperity and well-being of the original Swiss population. In 2009, the Swiss People’s Party sent a direct message against the Muslim population when they supported a referendum that opposed the formation of new minarets (Islamic mosques), and 57% of Swiss voters endorsed the referendum.
In Denmark, the Danish People’s Party is also particularly aggressive towards immigration of all kinds, and is obsessed with security at the country’s borders. According to the party’s agenda, they will not allow Denmark to transform into a multi-ethnic society, because Denmark is not an immigrant-friendly nation and does not intend to become one. The party maintains that Denmark only belongs to the Danes and consequently, its citizens have a right to live in a secure society, established on the rule of law developed from Danish culture and traditions, and the rules of which would be completely alien to an immigrant. The Denmark People’s Party contributed to making Denmark’s immigration regulations the toughest in the whole of Europe. The Denmark People’s Party opposed Denmark’s admission to the European Union and won a critical victory when Denmark reestablished border controls (Kicker, 86).
In Austria, the Alliance for the Future of Austria (BZÖ) and the Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ) under the leadership of Jörg Haider, campaign mainly on an anti-immigration stance. However, their party programs are acknowledged by libertarians and populists. In Sweden, the Swedish Democrat party motto is “Keep Sweden Swedish.” Just like most of Europe’s right-wing populist parties, the Swedish Democrats are typically recognized for their anti-immigrant xenophobia. The party demands a 90% decrease in the number of refugees migrating to Sweden.
It has been an acknowledged pattern that richer and more developed countries tend to be more aggressive and hostile towards immigrants. While the country may be absolutely friendly with foreigners coming in as tourists, as soon as the matter turns towards immigration, part of the population (usually those who support right-wing conservative political forces) tends to demonstrate xenophobia towards the foreigners coming into the country for the long-term. Sometimes, the display of xenophobic soundings may become less specific and relate to any foreign-born citizens, or even tourists. The failure to criticize initial inappropriate actions and promote tolerance within the country by the government, as well as by NGOs, directly contributes to acts of aggression and the development of xenophobia.
Oftentimes, the root causes of why right-wing parties in general and those of the European Union countries in particular demonstrate xenophobic moods are due to the failure of local government to control the flow of immigration to the desired level. There is a thin line between being friendly to other nations, both within and outside the EU, and staying strong in addressing the needs of taxpayers as a priority and protecting the citizens of the country from unemployment, while ensuring tolerance to people of different origin, religion, race, ethnicity, as well as to the local minorities.
Poor policy resolutions and ineptitude in border policing have therefore contributed to xenophobia in the right-wing parties discussed in this paper. When immigrants are admitted without proper internal political actions being taken, the national culture and economy may suffer, and national identities of citizens fade. Immigrants, particularly poor refugees, use a large quantity of government resources in terms of welfare, schooling and health care, as well as contribute to high levels of unemployment (Cesari, 205). One of the main reasons behind xenophobia in the European Right-Wing Populist parties is to protect national identity and limit normal adaptation by cultural minorities. Therefore, reinforcing strict policies, rules and laws that aim to control and limit immigration, while at the same time ensuring that immigration does not contribute to the rise of crime rates, unemployment and xenophobic manifestations in the society, is the key to maintaining the balance in the society, economy, and politics, and the flow of immigrants into the country.
Cesari, Jocelyne. Muslims in the West after 9/11: Religion, Politics, and Law. Taylor & Francis,
Kicker, Renate. The Council of Europe: Pioneer and Guarantor for Human Rights and Democracy.
Council of Europe, 2010.
Schori Liang, Christina. Europe for the Europeans: the Foreign and Security Policy of the
Populist Radical Right. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2007.
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JIHAD AND TERRORISM
The terms, Islam, Jihad and terrorism have been used to relate to each other in modern society especially the use of Jihad and terrorism as synonyms. Contrary to this notion Jihad and terrorism are two different concepts and do not interrelate at any given point. It is important for Non-Muslims to understand that terrorism is the complete opposite of Jihad and is not recognized nor accepted in Islam religion. Jihad in Islam is a struggle towards the path of Allah and is under guidance of the Qur’an. Islam does not just merely view it as a struggle but one that is directed and guided in the cause and teachings of Allah (Lewis 2003, 113-119). On the other hand terrorism goes against Qur’an teachings involving violence and destruction of property. Jihad and terrorism are different concepts however nowadays, these two terms have become identical because they are mainly based on the illegal use of force or violence from the side of one person or an organized group against people or property with the intent to intimidate, coerce society and cause pain and suffering to others while using Islam religion to justify their actions.
Jihad has popularly been defined as a ‘holy war’. Its actual meaning is a struggle both within one self against human desires and aspirations as well as others. Islam preaches Jihad as the struggle towards the path of Allah. It is meant to make Allah’s word supreme, spreading His religion and defending the honor of the Islamic nation. Jihad is an obligation and Allah commands it; to fight against oppression of all Muslims. Other definitions include striving against one’s self evil desires, to improve a society, for self-defense in the battlefield and fighting tyranny and oppression (Gabriel 2002, 85-90). Jihad in the battlefield according to Islam is sort as a last resort and is only used to defend freedom following clearly stated guidelines from the Quran. It should always be under guidance from the Qur’an teachings otherwise it is not Jihad but rather violence which Islam prohibits. People who engage in Jihad in accordance to Allah and rules of Sunnah in light of Prophet Muhammad are referred to as Mujahidin (Bergen 2001, 44-65).
Terrorism as opposed to Jihad is an act of terror and violence on innocent people with the aim of instilling fear as well as the unlawful use of force to intimidate or coerce a government. It involves destruction of human life and dignity, property, finances, essential elements of living to achieve economic gains and spread propagandas that serve political ends. Terrorism is a crime, both in the international conventions and the Sharia law which call for people to fight against. It is ideologically motivated and indiscriminately targets innocent civilians (Piazza 2009, 64). Terrorist acts are highly condemned in Islam and do not exist in the Qur’an teachings. Islam is a religion of peace that preaches unity and although it provides guidelines for war, it is for defense and not to fight. These acts of terror are committed by people who view themselves as victimized by some historic wrong. Most Islamic terrorists who comprise of Muslim groups and individuals profess that their acts are guided and motivated by the interpretations of the Qur’an. However teachings in Islam command them not to kill children, women, old people or ill-treat prisoners of war. Terrorism is fueled by materialistic and territorial gains often associated with political injustice, occupation or invasion (Lewis 2003, 137-160).
Islam comes from the word Salaam which means peace. Followers of Islam are Muslims who believe in the submission to the will of God (Allah) and only believe in Him. It is the second largest religion in the world after Christianity. Muslims believe that Allah sent a number of prophets including, Abraham, Moses and Jesus to humankind to teach people how to live in accordance to His law. They believe the final prophet was Muhammad. Their laws are based upon the holy book Qur’an and have five basic pillars of Islam; the declaration of faith, praying five times a day, giving money to charity, fasting and the pilgrimage to Mecca (Asad 1982, 10-28). Muslims believe that Allah expects unity of Him and accountability after death. Islamic teachings are guided by peace and forbid any engagements of cruelty and violation of human rights. Qur’an states that Allah bestows honor on all human beings irrespective of their race or nationalities. Islamic teachings thus do not permit any Muslim to fight against Non-Muslims based on the fact that they do not follow Islam. Islam respects people and their faith as long as they are not oppressing them or forbidding them from serving and learning about Allah (Gabriel 2002, 157-166).
The concepts of Jihad and terrorism have been misunderstood with a high percentage of Non-Muslims associating the two to having the same meaning. Currently, extremists widely link the notion of terrorism with the notion of Jihad in an attempt to justify their activities. Jihad has one goal and that is a struggle towards the path of Allah while terrorism is directed to Innocent civilians for material or territorial gain with no regard to religion (Sookhdeo 2004, 23-36). Terrorism is directed to innocent civilians using explosions, kidnappings, gunning people down or extreme cases of burning them alive. Jihad is not driven by such heinous acts and is not permitted to the innocent who include children, women and the old since these acts have no place in the noble concept of Islam. Jihad can only be authorized by a recognized authority in the Islamic religion to deter oppression and is declared openly, it is only limited to combatants and is bound by strict rules of engagement. On the other hand terrorism is committed by group sects or individuals on their own accord and involves a lot of secrecy, indiscriminately involved in killing innocent civilians with little to no regard of human life and it is not bound by any rules (Sookhdeo 2004, 23-36).
The differences mentioned above give a clear defining difference between Jihad and terrorism and the two should not be misinterpreted to meet individuals or groups malicious gains disregarding Islamic religion. Islam demonizes any justification of modern day terrorism as evil and cruel to humanity. There is a representation especially in the western countries of Islam as a barbaric and crude religion that gives itself the right to cause harm, suffering and destruction to humanity. However this is not the case defined in the Qur’an and neither does it represent Islam (Sookhdeo 2004, 23-36). The use of Islam as a form of legitimization by some organizations that would otherwise be considered criminals is manipulation used to justify unlawful actions. The term Jihad has been used by sects and gangs who participate in terrorist activities in the name of Islam. Research study shows that most of them claim to be torchbearers and fight in order to promote Islam. The irony is that the claim to uphold justice is born on roots of injustice.
Those who terrorize people claiming to be Muslims do not adhere to the teachings of their religion which is a religion of peace with tolerance towards other faiths and beliefs. The rule of engagement in Jihad which is mostly used to disguise terror activities is inclined towards attainment of peace. It involves military conflicts and only directed to the fighting troops not civilians, neither is it a lee way for Muslims to engage in unlawful violence and violations of human rights. Physical Jihad is not used to compel people to embrace Islam and in cases where the enemy offers peace it should be accepted immediately. Acts committed by individuals or particular groups form a specific community should not be used to judge the community as a whole. Not all Muslims are terrorists and thus should not be judge in regard to other people’s heinous acts. Most terrorists are Muslims driven by different factors that are not based on their religion as no religion can advocate for mass human murders and suffering (Hoffman 2006, 81-130). Islam is an easy target to justify their actions which is opposed to its teachings. However it is important to not too that the Muslim community have failed to live in light and concept of promoting the meaning of Jihad. Using religion to justify mass murders, human suffering and destruction of property is an even worse crime than the act itself.
Jihad is a form of defense and obligation which dates back to the invasion of the Afghanistan by the Red Army in December 1979. It was led by guerillas who wanted to be seen as heroes fighting the infidel’s regimes. The Mujahidin toughened up in war and adopted the new techniques of fighting from their opponents which included discharging explosives and tracking people. The expansion of their activities worldwide progressed in the early 1980s with Mujahidin militants regrouping in Pakistan and Afghanistan (Kepel and Peter 2003, 92-95; Kepel 2002, 136-158). Some of these groups are what formed the terrorists’ groups’ popular known today in modern society such as the Al-Qaeda. They were characterized by extreme religious fanatics with unquestionable authority who quoted the Qur’an and the sayings of Prophet Muhammad to justify their illegal activities. Most of the guerrilla activities were manifested in Egypt, Algeria and Bosnia until the mid1990s.
They later on targeted the west to expose their weakness seeking to inspire the Muslim community to take part in Jihadist (Asad 1982, 29-48). The Jihadist guerrilla warfare did not succeed in finding a consensus but this did not prevent the eventual and widespread development of terrorism. 1996 saw terrorism become the main tactic of Jihadist movements with a supreme icon figure of Osama bin Ladin. The period that followed saw the transition of Jihadist Guerillas to the phase of terrorism which involved massacres (Kepel and Peter 2003, 104). It adopted misdeeds as suicide attacks and bombings with specific aims.
The Islamic world has been characterized with hostility in regard to modernity and secularism of the Islamic state. The pillar of the classical Islamic political thought was represented by the Caliphate. A caliphate is a form of Islamic government involving political and religion and the leader is the successor of Prophet Muhammad. Modernity brought with it the abolition of the Caliphate where Muslims are free to choose their own governments (Brown 2004, 211). This however was not easily embraced well by the Islamic culture as it meant adopting the European systems. Islam has no connection to the government in the new world of independent states. This resulted in a gap in doing away with the old worn out systems and embracing new governments. The idea of an Islamic state was taken up by radicalized Muslim movements commonly know as the Muslim Brotherhood. Their ideologies rested on development of an Islamic state that derived all its teachings from the Qur’an though not clear how this state would look like and how it would be governed (Brown 2004, 212-213).
Islam modernity and state created a power vacuum which resulted in the development of radicalized movements who were in favor of their culture. The Muslim Brotherhood had two innovations including Jihad and Martyrdom as well as modern Jahiliyya. Jihad and martyrdom are the leading factors to the end and rejection of nationalism. According to the movements Jihad is a God given tool and an obligation meant to be embraced by all Muslims. They related to suicide bombing and learning the art of death as is required by the Qur’an. Jihad and terrorist movements have their basis in the notion of Islam modernity and the state and were a response to maintain a caliphate Islamic world (Brown 2004, 215).
The rise of jihadist and terrorist movements has also been motivated by the concept of orientalism. It is the domination of the west, restructuring and having authority over the east. The world consists of the Westerners and the Orientals where the westerners dominate the orients occupying their land, controlling their internal affairs and using their treasures for their own gain or that of other western countries. The orients are described as being gullible, devoid of energy and minds that cannot grasp even the simplest of things as compared to the Europeans (Said 1978, 34-35). Orientalism expresses the strength of the west magnifying the weakness of the orients which resulted in the division of the two coexisting in tension from radical differences. The act of domination and invasion had an impact on the orient countries fueling the development of jihadist movements to protect their people from oppression (Said 1978, 46-47).
The Islamic orient has been the center of attention in the media. With the development of technology, media has reinforced the stereotypical treatment that has been directed to the orients. Life of Muslims in the West especially in America is disheartening. They are not politically recognized and when they are it is only as a nuisance or an oriental (Said 1978, 12-28). Mass media has become a primary source of information in the modern society and disseminated information has great effects on people. The media has over time inaccurately and unjustly presented Muslims and Islam as a violent community and religion responsible for terrorist attacks. It manipulates citizens fueling prejudice against the Muslim community with articles that use dramatic tones of mere suspicions and accusations (Asad 1982, 29-48).
There are numerous campaigns in the West which are against Islam and Muslims and though Muslims try to defend themselves, they cannot compare to the dominance of the western media. The media portrays them as terrorists posing a threat to their security. This in most countries has led to Islamophobia and little has been done to change or respond to the negativity (Hoffman 2006, 197-200).
There are a number of terrorist groups in the Muslim community comprising of sects or individuals who profess Islamic motivations or particular interpretations of the Qur’an to justify their acts (Pape 2005, 136-158). They include the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) it is a Jihadist group based in the Middle East whose main goal is to mobilize the Muslim population. They commit violent acts against humanity through mass murder, genocide and slavery. The Boko Haram is another Jihadist movement in Northeastern Nigeria who attack villages killing the inhabitants with guns or burning them alive. They are commonly known for destroying schools and burning students due to their opposition to western education (Farrall 2011, 128-138). The Hezbollah is another terrorist group aimed at expelling all sorts of western presence especially the Americans in Lebanon. The Taliban are involved in drug and human trafficking and have their origins in the struggle against the Soviet carried out by the United States in Afghanistan. Finally the Al-Qaeda group founded by Osama bin Laden justifies their violence as a form of uniting Muslims in global Jihad as an interpretation of the Sharia law. It is extremely influential and carries out suicide missions using suicide bombers (Agbiboa 2014, 27-34).
Though religion has been a major factor in contributing to historical conflicts and modern terrorism, war and fighting are human phenomena that are not specific to specific races or ideologies. Corrupt religion has attracted criticism with God being used to justify various forms of cruelty from burning and stoning adulterers to crucifying Jesus Himself. Terrorism has been influenced by military and economic inferiority which is supported by moral superiority of religion. Religion is not the only cause of conflict but it is important to note that mass murders or war are fought in the name of a greater being bigger than one self. Terrorists may use Islam to justify their acts but this has nothing to do with religion (Hoffman 2006, 81-130). The Qur’an recognizes defensive warfare of Jihad but not what is today distorted to terrorist bombings. Terrorists are enemies of peace and must be combated. Islam emphasizes on love for mankind, showing mercy and sympathy which are opposite of terrorist actions.
Muslims denounce terrorism quoting the Qur’an that states when one kills an innocent person it is as if they have killed all humanity. They have repeatedly condemned the horrible murders comparing them to barbarism. Contrary to the sentiments of terrorists as it being an act of freedom for Muslims, Muslims regard them as criminals whose souls belong in Hell. Following the rise of terrorist activities in recent times, there have been many instances when Muslims have shown that they do not support these acts (Sookhdeo 2004, 149-162). This is shown in social media sites proclaiming that murder and terrorism are not Islam; during the September 11 attacks they donated blood for the victims. There is no religion not only Islam that can allow violence and bloodshed of innocent civilians in the name of God.
Jihad and terrorism are two controversial concepts that have been misunderstood and used by terrorists to tarnish Islam by justifying crime. The representation of Muslims as terrorists is wrong. This only leads to escalation of racism and Islamophobia. There is a need for effective awareness programs aimed at educating the Non-Muslim community on Islamic concepts which are guided by peace. The media should be one of the platforms used since it is influential and shapes people’s opinions (Gabriel 2002, 41-50). People need to understand the Islamic concept of Jihad and the political factors driving the acts of terrorism to stop blaming an entire community and religion. History explains far more devastating acts of Mussolini and Hitler who were Christians and these acts were condemned as acts against humanity. However they were not tagged to a specific religion as is the case of Islamic terrorism. Islam does not condone the killing of innocent people no matter how legitimate a cause is. Terrorizing innocent people is not Jihad and neither is it recognized in Islam teachings.
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